Studies of The Atmosphere and The Magnetosphere of Jupiter

The American spacecraft "Galileo" itself is designed to study the atmosphere and the magnetosphere of Jupiter and its moons detailed photography. It was constructed of three segments, which have helped to focus attention on these areas: atmospheric probe, nonrotating sector orbiter carrying a camera and other sensors, rotating in three dimensions of the main section, which includes tools designed to measure particles and fields, at the when the "Galileo" will fly right through them.

The American spacecraft “Galileo” itself is designed to study the atmosphere and the magnetosphere of Jupiter and its moons detailed photography. It was constructed of three segments, which have helped to focus attention on these areas: atmospheric probe, nonrotating sector orbiter carrying a camera and other sensors, rotating in three dimensions of the main section, which includes tools designed to measure particles and fields, at the when the “Galileo” will fly right through them.

The division into two parts needed for magnetospheric experiments, during which it is necessary to make measurements with fast rotation, ensuring at the same time stability and a fixed orientation for cameras and other detectors.

Scientific instruments that measure fields and particles, together with the main antenna, the energy supply, power modules and computers installed in the rotating section. This is – magnetometers, instruments for the detection of low-energy charged particles, plasma wave detector, trapping particles generated waves, high-energy particle detector, the detector of cosmic and Jovian dust, heavy ion counter, appliances, evaluating the potential risk from charged particles, which flows through the spacecraft flies.

Non-rotating section contains tools and other equipment whose activity depends on the stability and fixed orientation: instruments for atmospheric spectral imaging and chemical analysis of the surface of the moons, ultraviolet spectrometer, fotopolyarimetr-radiometer for measuring the absorbed and emitted energy. Camera system provides images of Jupiter’s satellites with a resolution of 20 to 1000 times better than had been received with “Voyager.”

In December 1995, “Galileo” reached Jupiter, on command from the earth separated from him the descent probe penetrated into the atmosphere at 156 km and there functioned 57 min. During which the transmitted data. A orbiter “Galileo” was an artificial satellite of Jupiter and more than 6 years diligently carries his service to the Jovian orbit. During his flight, “Galileo” was a huge amount of information and opened a powerful new radiation belt at a distance of approximately 50 000 km of the upper clouds of Jupiter.

Using data from the probe is immersed in the upper cloud layers of Jupiter, scientists have discovered that lightning storms it is many times more powerful than the terrestrial and Jovian atmosphere in less water than previously thought. It turns out that on Jupiter are both dry and wet areas and water content of the giant gaseous planet varies almost as much as the humidity changes on the Earth.

In addition, the “Galileo” Jupiter first discovered on an unusual cloud of pure ammonia pieces of ice, and despite the fact that Jupiter’s atmosphere contains a gaseous ammonia. This is an ice cloud was observed near the Great Red Spot on infrared photographs taken during his first round of “Galileo” around Jupiter. And this cloud, called the Turbulent Wake Anomaly, despite the strong winds blowing in the area, has a fairly stable structure. Further studies with a spectrometer showed that the cloud has a very high concentration of ammonia ice particles, and its thickness is about 15 km. 

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