This is a guide about cells, mainly plant and animal cells.
First I will start us off with the cell theory. This was developed around 1850 from observations. It has 3 parts. The first rule is that all organisms are made up of one or more cells. The second rule is that cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms. The third rule is that all cells came from already existent cells.
Let’s start out with the controls of the cell. The nucleus controls most of the cell’s functions. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane which protects the nucleus and lets certain materials leave and enter. There is a mini-nucleus inside of the nucleus. This is called the nucleolus, and it helps in the production of proteins. It is surrounded by chromatin which is made of hereditary material (DNA) and proteins.
Attached to the nucleus is the endoplasmic reticulum. It is a tubular network of structures stretching from the nucleus to the cell membrane. The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) moves materials around the cell. There are 2 types of ERs, rough and smooth. Smooth ERs don’t have ribosomes attached to them, while rough ERs do. Ribosomes are also found in cytoplasm, and they produce proteins. Golgi bodies are stacks of sacs that package and transport proteins to the outside of the cell.
On the outside of the cell in producers, there is a cell wall. This makes the cell rigid and is made of strong cellulose. The cell membrane is inside of the cell wall in producers, and it is stretchy, allowing materials to leave and enter the cell. The cell is filled with a gel like substance called cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is made of mostly water, and also has some chemicals in it. Its job is to support the organelles like mitochondria, nucleus, ribosomes, and etcetera. It is constantly moving or streaming.
Vacuoles are larger in producers than consumers, and are storage places for wastes, water, and food. The mitochondria turn food into energy for the cell to use. There are also chloroplasts (exclusively for producers) which carry out photosynthesis and make food. Lysosomes digest worn out organelles, as well as worn out cells, wastes, and large particles of food.