Beginning of Wireless Communication

The second circuit whom Hertz experimented was a simple conductor. This was bent into a circle and like the first circuit, it also has a small gap between its ends.

Wireless communication begins with the experiment of Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) in 1886. In his experiment, Hertz set up two circuits. The first of the two circuits had a small gap. He connected this circuit to a high voltage source. As long as the high voltage  had built up in the  ends of the gap, a spark is observed, jumping back and forth across the gap.

Heinrich Hertz

Image via Wikipedia

The second circuit whom Hertz experimented was a simple conductor. This was bent into a circle and like the first circuit, it also has a small gap between its ends.

In the experiment, Hertz observed that whenever a spark  were produced at the first circuit connected to a high voltage, another spark were also observed in the second circuit. This was became possible even though the two circuits were 2 meters away from each other and there were no connections between them.

The event is that, the spark from the first circuit was carried and being propagated in the air and was received by the second circuit.

The energy from the first circuit was carried to the second circuit by the electromagnetic waves.

In 1896, Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) sent messages over a distance of few kilometers. He used a spark gap transmitter and a simple receiver which indicated the presence of a signal in a telephone by clicks.

Guglielmo Marconi

Image via Wikipedia

He used similar system in 1901 to recieve Morse signals across the Atlantic. He was able to developed the first “wireless telegraphed”.

Today telephone, radio and satellites are also wireless, making communication through the use of electromagnetic waves.

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6 Responses to “Beginning of Wireless Communication”
  1. kent Says...

    On January 28, 2010 at 12:19 am

    The second circuit whom Hertz experimented was a simple conductor. This was bent into a circle and like the first circuit, it also has a small gap between its ends.

    Wireless communication begins with the experiment of Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) in 1886. In his experiment, Hertz set up two circuits. The first of the two circuits had a small gap. He connected this circuit to a high voltage source. As long as the high voltage had built up in the ends of the gap, a spark is observed, jumping back and forth across the gap.

    Heinrich Hertz

    electromagnetic waves
    Light, microwaves, x-rays, and TV and radio transmissions are all kinds of electromagnetic waves. They are all the same kind of wavy disturbance that repeats itself over a distance called the wavelength.


  2. kim Says...

    On January 28, 2010 at 12:26 am

    Electromagnetic Waves have different wavelengths
    When you listen to the radio, watch TV, or cook dinner in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic waves.
    Radio waves, television waves, and microwaves are all types of electromagnetic waves. They differ from each other in wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.

    Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size from very long radio waves the size of buildings, to very short gamma-rays smaller than the size of the nucleus of an atom.

    Did you know that electromagnetic waves can not only be described by their wavelength, but also by their energy and frequency? All three of these things are related to each other mathematically. This means that it is correct to talk about the energy of an X-ray or the wavelength of a microwave or the frequency of a radio wave. The electromagnetic spectrum includes, from longest wavelength to shortest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.

    wireless communication

    In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi opened the way for modern wireless communications by transmitting the three-dot Morse code for the letter ‘S’ over a distance of three kilometers using electromagnetic waves. From this beginning, wireless communications has developed into a key element of modern society. From satellite transmission, radio and television broadcasting to the now ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless communications has revolutionized the way societies function.
    This chapter surveys the economics literature on wireless communications. Wireless communications and the economic goods and services that utilise it have some special characteristics that have motivated specialised studies. First, wireless communications relies on a scarce resource – namely, radio spectrum – the property rights for which were traditionally vested with the state. In order to foster the development of wireless communications (including telephony and broadcasting) those assets were privatised. Second, use of spectrum for wireless communications required the development of key complementary technologies; especially those that allowed higher frequencies to be utilised more efficiently. Finally, because of its special nature, the efficient use of spectrum required the coordinated development of standards. Those standards in turn played a critical role in the diffusion of technologies that relied on spectrum use.
    In large part our chapter focuses on wireless telephony rather than broadcasting and other uses of spectrum (e.g., telemetry and biomedical services). Specifically, the economics literature on that industry has focused on factors driving the diffusion of
    3
    wireless telecommunication technologies and on the nature of network pricing regulation and competition in the industry. By focusing on the economic literature, this chapter complements other surveys in this Handbook. Hausman (2002) focuses on technological and policy developments in mobile telephony rather than economic research per se. Cramton (2002) provides a survey of the theory and practice of spectrum auctions used for privatisation. Armstrong (2002a) and Noam (2002) consider general issues regarding network interconnection and access pricing while Woroch (2002) investigates the potential for wireless technologies as a substitute for local fixed line telephony. Finally, Liebowitz and Margolis (2002) provide a general survey of the economics literature on network effects. In contrast, we focus here solely on the economic literature on the mobile telephony industry.
    The outline for this chapter is as follows. The next section provides background information regarding the adoption of wireless communication technologies. Section 3 then considers the economic issues associated with mobile telephony including spectrum allocation and standards. Section 4 surveys recent economic studies of the diffusion of mobile telephony. Finally, section 5 reviews issues of regulation and competition; in particular, the need for and principles behind access pricing for mobile phone networks.


  3. kent Says...

    On January 28, 2010 at 12:27 am

    Electromagnetic Waves have different wavelengths
    When you listen to the radio, watch TV, or cook dinner in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic waves.
    Radio waves, television waves, and microwaves are all types of electromagnetic waves. They differ from each other in wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.

    Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size from very long radio waves the size of buildings, to very short gamma-rays smaller than the size of the nucleus of an atom.

    Did you know that electromagnetic waves can not only be described by their wavelength, but also by their energy and frequency? All three of these things are related to each other mathematically. This means that it is correct to talk about the energy of an X-ray or the wavelength of a microwave or the frequency of a radio wave. The electromagnetic spectrum includes, from longest wavelength to shortest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.

    wireless communication

    In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi opened the way for modern wireless communications by transmitting the three-dot Morse code for the letter ‘S’ over a distance of three kilometers using electromagnetic waves. From this beginning, wireless communications has developed into a key element of modern society. From satellite transmission, radio and television broadcasting to the now ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless communications has revolutionized the way societies function.
    This chapter surveys the economics literature on wireless communications. Wireless communications and the economic goods and services that utilise it have some special characteristics that have motivated specialised studies. First, wireless communications relies on a scarce resource – namely, radio spectrum – the property rights for which were traditionally vested with the state. In order to foster the development of wireless communications (including telephony and broadcasting) those assets were privatised. Second, use of spectrum for wireless communications required the development of key complementary technologies; especially those that allowed higher frequencies to be utilised more efficiently. Finally, because of its special nature, the efficient use of spectrum required the coordinated development of standards. Those standards in turn played a critical role in the diffusion of technologies that relied on spectrum use.
    In large part our chapter focuses on wireless telephony rather than broadcasting and other uses of spectrum (e.g., telemetry and biomedical services). Specifically, the economics literature on that industry has focused on factors driving the diffusion of
    3
    wireless telecommunication technologies and on the nature of network pricing regulation and competition in the industry. By focusing on the economic literature, this chapter complements other surveys in this Handbook. Hausman (2002) focuses on technological and policy developments in mobile telephony rather than economic research per se. Cramton (2002) provides a survey of the theory and practice of spectrum auctions used for privatisation. Armstrong (2002a) and Noam (2002) consider general issues regarding network interconnection and access pricing while Woroch (2002) investigates the potential for wireless technologies as a substitute for local fixed line telephony. Finally, Liebowitz and Margolis (2002) provide a general survey of the economics literature on network effects. In contrast, we focus here solely on the economic literature on the mobile telephony industry.
    The outline for this chapter is as follows. The next section provides background information regarding the adoption of wireless communication technologies. Section 3 then considers the economic issues associated with mobile telephony including spectrum allocation and standards. Section 4 surveys recent economic studies of the diffusion of mobile telephony. Finally, section 5 reviews issues of regulation and competition; in particular, the need for and principles behind access pricing for mobile phone networks.


  4. karl michael Says...

    On January 28, 2010 at 12:28 am

    Electromagnetic Waves have different wavelengths
    When you listen to the radio, watch TV, or cook dinner in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic waves.
    Radio waves, television waves, and microwaves are all types of electromagnetic waves. They differ from each other in wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.

    Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size from very long radio waves the size of buildings, to very short gamma-rays smaller than the size of the nucleus of an atom.

    Did you know that electromagnetic waves can not only be described by their wavelength, but also by their energy and frequency? All three of these things are related to each other mathematically. This means that it is correct to talk about the energy of an X-ray or the wavelength of a microwave or the frequency of a radio wave. The electromagnetic spectrum includes, from longest wavelength to shortest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.

    wireless communication

    In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi opened the way for modern wireless communications by transmitting the three-dot Morse code for the letter ‘S’ over a distance of three kilometers using electromagnetic waves. From this beginning, wireless communications has developed into a key element of modern society. From satellite transmission, radio and television broadcasting to the now ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless communications has revolutionized the way societies function.
    This chapter surveys the economics literature on wireless communications. Wireless communications and the economic goods and services that utilise it have some special characteristics that have motivated specialised studies. First, wireless communications relies on a scarce resource – namely, radio spectrum – the property rights for which were traditionally vested with the state. In order to foster the development of wireless communications (including telephony and broadcasting) those assets were privatised. Second, use of spectrum for wireless communications required the development of key complementary technologies; especially those that allowed higher frequencies to be utilised more efficiently. Finally, because of its special nature, the efficient use of spectrum required the coordinated development of standards. Those standards in turn played a critical role in the diffusion of technologies that relied on spectrum use.
    In large part our chapter focuses on wireless telephony rather than broadcasting and other uses of spectrum (e.g., telemetry and biomedical services). Specifically, the economics literature on that industry has focused on factors driving the diffusion of
    3
    wireless telecommunication technologies and on the nature of network pricing regulation and competition in the industry. By focusing on the economic literature, this chapter complements other surveys in this Handbook. Hausman (2002) focuses on technological and policy developments in mobile telephony rather than economic research per se. Cramton (2002) provides a survey of the theory and practice of spectrum auctions used for privatisation. Armstrong (2002a) and Noam (2002) consider general issues regarding network interconnection and access pricing while Woroch (2002) investigates the potential for wireless technologies as a substitute for local fixed line telephony. Finally, Liebowitz and Margolis (2002) provide a general survey of the economics literature on network effects. In contrast, we focus here solely on the economic literature on the mobile telephony industry.
    The outline for this chapter is as follows. The next section provides background information regarding the adoption of wireless communication technologies. Section 3 then considers the economic issues associated with mobile telephony including spectrum allocation and standards. Section 4 surveys recent economic studies of the diffusion of mobile telephony. Finally, section 5 reviews issues of regulation and competition; in particular, the need for and principles behind access pricing for mobile phone networks.


  5. kent Says...

    On February 3, 2010 at 7:56 am

    Electromagnetic Waves have different wavelengths
    When you listen to the radio, watch TV, or cook dinner in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic waves.
    Radio waves, television waves, and microwaves are all types of electromagnetic waves. They differ from each other in wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.
    Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size from very long radio waves the size of buildings, to very short gamma-rays smaller than the size of the nucleus of an atom.
    Did you know that electromagnetic waves can not only be described by their wavelength, but also by their energy and frequency? All three of these things are related to each other mathematically. This means that it is correct to talk about the energy of an X-ray or the wavelength of a microwave or the frequency of a radio wave. The electromagnetic spectrum includes, from longest wavelength to shortest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.
    wireless communication
    In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi opened the way for modern wireless communications by transmitting the three-dot Morse code for the letter ‘S’ over a distance of three kilometers using electromagnetic waves. From this beginning, wireless communications has developed into a key element of modern society. From satellite transmission, radio and television broadcasting to the now ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless communications has revolutionized the way societies function.
    This chapter surveys the economics literature on wireless communications. Wireless communications and the economic goods and services that utilise it have some special characteristics that have motivated specialised studies. First, wireless communications relies on a scarce resource – namely, radio spectrum – the property rights for which were traditionally vested with the state. In order to foster the development of wireless communications (including telephony and broadcasting) those assets were privatised. Second, use of spectrum for wireless communications required the development of key complementary technologies; especially those that allowed higher frequencies to be utilised more efficiently. Finally, because of its special nature, the efficient use of spectrum required the coordinated development of standards. Those standards in turn played a critical role in the diffusion of technologies that relied on spectrum use.
    In large part our chapter focuses on wireless telephony rather than broadcasting and other uses of spectrum (e.g., telemetry and biomedical services). Specifically, the economics literature on that industry has focused on factors driving the diffusion of
    3
    wireless telecommunication technologies and on the nature of network pricing regulation and competition in the industry. By focusing on the economic literature, this chapter complements other surveys in this Handbook. Hausman (2002) focuses on technological and policy developments in mobile telephony rather than economic research per se. Cramton (2002) provides a survey of the theory and practice of spectrum auctions used for privatisation. Armstrong (2002a) and Noam (2002) consider general issues regarding network interconnection and access pricing while Woroch (2002) investigates the potential for wireless technologies as a substitute for local fixed line telephony. Finally, Liebowitz and Margolis (2002) provide a general survey of the economics literature on network effects. In contrast, we focus here solely on the economic literature on the mobile telephony industry.
    The outline for this chapter is as follows. The next section provides background information regarding the adoption of wireless communication technologies. Section 3 then considers the economic issues associated with mobile telephony including spectrum allocation and standards. Section 4 surveys recent economic studies of the diffusion of mobile telephony. Finally, section 5 reviews issues of regulation and competition; in particular, the need for and principles behind access pricing for mobile phone networks.


  6. black Says...

    On February 13, 2010 at 10:48 pm

    you sucks you just copy the info


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