Naturalism in The Philosophy

The term naturalism is the opposite of supernaturalism that contain the term dualistic view of nature with the powers that be (being) above or outside nature (Harold H. Titus e.al. 1984)

Said that the materialism of modern nature (universe) is the material unity of the infinite nature including all matter and energy (or energy of motion) is always there and will remain there. And that the (world) is a harsh reality, tangible, material, objective, which can be known by man. Modern materialism, said there is material before the soul (mind), and the material world is the first. While thinking about this world is number two.

Materialist group, as the other streams do not agree on every issue, or do not adhere entirely to the problems mentioned above. In today’s world, materialism can take one of two forms, one mechanism or mechanical materialism (mechanistic materialism) with emphasis on natural science, and second of dialectical materialism (dialectical materialsm) which is the official philosophy of Russia, China and other communist groups around the world. Mechanical materialism has tremendous appeal because of its simplicity. By accepting this approach, one felt he had to free themselves from the perplexing problems-problems which for centuries beabad. What is real (yes, really there) in man is his body, and the measure of truth or reality is a touching sight and sound, the experimental verification tools. (Juhaya S. Pradja, 1987)

Many thinkers argue that if science can explain everything to the cause mechanical course, consequently there is no reason to believe in Allah and the purpose of nature. The same law applies to humans, lower animals and the planet. Awareness of the mind is the result of changes in the brain or nerves. Governed by the laws of physical nature of matter, although it involves a very complex and delicate of human reason. Living just a physiological process and only has physiological significance.

There are so many philosophers, humanists, idealists, pragmatists, and others say that the mechanical materialism does not explain the whole problem. Most people recognize that there are systems in the world can be explained by the mechanical as well as possible, and only a few people have challenged the use of a mechanical interpretation in the field in which the interpretation is to help our understanding. But many people question the principles of mechanics to provide a satisfactory basis for an explanation of all that materialism is an example of reductive fallacy that occurs when a complex situation or a simple whole. For example, when a materialist says that sense it is merely a form of matter, critics say that he made a mistake that is a rough reduction.

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