Effect of temperature on enzyme activity.
There are many factors affecting enzyme activity, of all these factors there is temperature. like all other factors temperature has its role in altering the rate at which a reaction takes place. As temperature of a reaction increases so does the rate of the reaction. As the reaction is heated the molecules of substrate and enzyme move more quickly thus increasing the chance of them bumping into each other, therefore increasing the rate of the reaction. This temperature at which the reaction works best is termed the optimum temperature. But like all man made things there is a limit, if this optimum temperature is exceeded the rate of the reaction will decrease. This decrease in the rate of the reaction is caused by the change in shape of the active site(denature) on the enzyme, which is a gap into which the substrate fits, this change in shape of the active site causes the substrate not to fit, therefore not allowing any reaction to take place. Bonds which are mostly affected by temperature are that of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds.
The optimum temperature of mammals are 37 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius, However there are enzymes of higher optimum temperature. Enzymes of bacteria that live in hot springs are a great example these enzymes are used as biological washing powders. Though enzymes are denatured when optimum temperature is exceeded this is not the case for temperatures at freezing point, at this point the enzyme is said to be inactivated. They will regain their influence as soon as temperatures are restored. This is why food can be preserved by quick freezing, so that the enzymes of microorganisms get inactivated thus preventing them from decomposing food.
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