Venus. The Composition of The Planet

The first matter that is open on Venus, the carbon dioxide was discovered by Adams and Dunham in the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1932, two years later and Adele Slipher of Lowell Observatory have shown that the formation of such strong lines of carbon dioxide, which are present in the spectrum of Venus, it is necessary column height of carbon dioxide for at least three miles under atmospheric pressure of Earth.

This conclusion agrees quite well with modern estimates of the thickness of the absorbing gas, whiThe first matter that is open on Venus, the carbon dioxide was discovered by Adams and Dunham in the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1932, two years later and Adele Slipher of Lowell Observatory have shown that the formation of such strong lines of carbon dioxide, which are present in the spectrum of Venus, it is necessary column height of carbon dioxide for at least 3 miles under atmospheric pressure of Earth.ch lies above the cloud layer. Currently, Venus is the most readily available source of carbon dioxide spectrum. In the spectra with high resolution, such as obtained in France, was identified more than 5000 absorption lines. Most of them have never been observed, they are formed by molecules of carbon dioxide, containing rare isotopes such as carbon-13, oxygen 17 and oxygen-18.

In the early 60s Sinton at the Lowell Observatory (USA) and Claus at the Southern Station of Sternberg Astronomical Institute in Crimea (USSR) independently discovered the presence of the infrared spectrum of another molecule: carbon monoxide CO. They also showed that Venus reflects very little sunlight between 3 and 4 microns, ie, in the near infrared. Frost indicated that the substance responsible for the absorption in this band can not be water, but should serve as a trap for heat in the lower atmosphere of Venus, ie, to play the role of water in our own atmosphere. Sinton and Strong, of Johns Hopkins University also found a broad absorption feature at 11.2 microns wavelength in the infrared region responsible for thermal radiation, this piece has remained unidentified for over a decade.

10 years ago, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) were the only substances whose presence on Venus was detected. For a long time looking for evidence of the presence of water vapor, and there were numerous reports of its discovery, but now they are all proven false. The first reliable observations of water vapor on Venus is likely to have been made Schorno and his staff at McDonald Observatory in the late 60s. Shortly thereafter, Barker Observatory McDonald measured the amount of water vapor in the upper atmosphere of Venus. The relative humidity rarely exceeds 1%.

The absorption spectrum of Venus has also been thoroughly investigated in order to detect the main component of the Earth’s atmosphere – oxygen. It was not detected, and its absence is a mystery. Carbon monoxide, apparently, is formed in the upper atmosphere, where carbon dioxide is dissociated by ultraviolet radiation. Oxygen is an inevitable byproduct of this reaction, and since molecular oxygen is a diatomic molecule O2 must be twice smaller than the CO molecules. Such a relationship exists on Mars, another planet, an atmosphere which consists mainly of carbon dioxide. On Venus, the oxygen is at least 50 times less abundant than carbon monoxide.

Oxygen deficit can be explained by assuming that he quickly moved into the lower atmosphere where it can interact with other substances such as sulfur. If so, the mixing of gases in the stratosphere to be much more effective at Venus than on Earth.

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