James Cameron, producer of the famous movie "Titanic" and "Avatar", recently announced that is preparing to sail for Mariana Trench – more precisely, to its lowest point: Challenger Deep. The deepest place on Earth, the deepest depths of the ocean that hides many mysteries, is the embodiment of mystery, danger and adventure.
Often measured – with mixed results – too little explored, but one of the great object of human dreams – to reach the deepest point of the ocean – Challenger Deep this year seems to be a “popular destination” for the expedition, if the expression it sounds annoying when it is associated with frivolous attempts so great and also dangerous. What is this place, the Earth’s crust so dramatically deepens inward toward Earth, making a frightful abyss, filled with salt water of the Pacific Ocean?
In places where tectonic plates in the floor heavier oceanic plates slip under continental lighter slowly – a process called subduction geological – the land out of depressions formed in the ocean huge, extending over miles. Over 20 such pits are scattered immeasurably large oceans, most can be found in the Pacific. Over all, reigns unrivaled Mariana Trench – an enormous trench that stretches over 11 km and a width of 1 km. And in this titanic sized ditch, a pit – who do not know what to staggering immensity of Cyclopean dimensions that surround, but bewildering to us, even just when we think of it – is the lowest point in a object could sit on the earth’s crust. Challenger Deep is called the endpoint of the planet.
Measurements made over time gave different values of depth differences are determined by the technology used for measurement.
- The first measure attempts were made in 1875, with technology available at that time: a rope with a weight again. The result: 8184 m
- Improved technology measurement and brought about changing this baseline. In 1951, measurements made with sonar (a device that emits sound waves and their echoes capture) gave results in 10,900 m
- The most recent measurements, made with advanced detection systems have shown that the Challenger Deep may have a maximum depth of 10,994 m
In this place, the water pressure is huge (which sounds without substance all these epithets: huge, huge, huge – are words too weak to describe the dimensions and forces acting there, but others have not, so we still use these, although woefully inexpressive to the overwhelming magnitude of what happens there and there). Water column height of about 11 km press on any item weighing over a ton per square inch. It’s dark, cold water and radio waves and light waves hardly cross through it.