The Destruction of The Mountains

We have already talked about how on earth can appear the mountains. A free-standing mountain, usually poured volcano.
Mountain ranges or chains of mountains occur in places where plates that make up the lithosphere, abut each other. There earth swells, rising mountains appear.

We have already talked about how on earth can appear the mountains. A free-standing mountain, usually poured volcano.

 Mountain ranges or chains of mountains occur in places where plates that make up the lithosphere, abut each other. There earth swells, rising mountains appear.

At different periods of life on the planet Earth lithospheric plates move in different ways. There is a place on earth where millions of years ago, having the mountains. But then the direction of plate motion change. The mountains have stopped growing and began to slowly crumble. These mountains are called the old and the processes that cause aging of the mountains, called the common word weathering.

Try to understand what can destroy mountains. Of course, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes destroy everything pretty quickly. This is what we just discussed, we will not repeat itself, especially considering that such disasters occur most frequently in areas of young mountains. However, do not think that just destroyed the old mountain. As doctors say, the person begins to age from birth. In the same way and the mountains can grow and decay at the same time.

Weathering gradually smooths out all the rough terrain. It happens so slowly that it is difficult for anything to notice. But the shape of the mountains is still changing. As a result, comparing the old and young, the mountains, we can see that in the outlines of the old mountains more flowing lines, if they lick. So a sea wave, which for centuries stachivaya coastal rocks, turning them into a smooth oval pebble. An example of the old mountains can serve as the Urals.

So what does grind down the mountain? First of all, the wind – it takes the smallest particles that are broken off from the cliffs. Then – the water. Rains, streams and rivers wash and larger debris. Powerful rivers are quite capable of even larger stones. But if all you may have already washed and blow away, then what next? That can destroy the smooth rocks?
This is where working temperature changes. In the mountains it is often very hot during the day and cold at night. In the heat of the stones is slightly extended, in the cold – compressed.

After many years of this “breathing” stones covered with cracks. Then, in the water flow into the cracks and accelerates the destruction of towering cliffs. The fact that the crack becomes numb, of course, liquid water, and at night it freezes and turns to ice. The ice is not as dense as water, so it requires a greater amount. It extends the triangle-schinu. Try to put the frost on the balcony stoppered bottle filled with water. When all the water will freeze, crack a bottle! The same thing happens with stones. The ice breaks them. During the day he melts, formed water flow into the deep rift that night again to expand it. Since water and wind slowly destroying Mt. These processes are called mechanical weathering.
There are other types of weathering. Dissolution of soft rock in the water (sometimes equipped with various additives) are called chemical weathering. If the crushed stone surface were able to consolidate some plants (mosses and lichens at the beginning, and they prepared for the soil – and the larger plants), talk about Biological weathering. Different types of weathering quietly age the mountains.

Occur in the mountains and sharper destructive processes, such as avalanches. They are formed as well. Snow falls on the mountain. In the horizontal sections of it accumulates and turns into ice (see § 36). On the vertical walls of snow can not be maintained and immediately poured down. But on the slopes of intermediate steepness can gather a lot of snow. When the weight of accumulated snow becomes too large, he is heading off down under its own weight. Such a landslide and snow avalanche is called.

There are several types of avalanches.

Dust avalanche is formed of loose snow that contains a lot of air. The snow that is light, so it can accumulate on the slope of a lot. When he finally breaks down, the air rises a cloud of snow dust, rushing with great speed. This avalanche breaks the age-old pine trees, like matches, blowing away the stones, the whole village and, of course, goes to sleep people podvernuvshihsya her path. It is particularly dangerous is that powdery snow just close up your mouth and nose because of what a person can suffocate even left on the surface of the avalanche. So people, just as in a sandstorm, cover your mouth and nose with a scarf, and got into an avalanche, try to swim in it, as in the river, vygrebaya to shore.
In addition to dry avalanches are still damp and wet. They are usually formed in the spring when the snow melts. The density of such avalanches is much larger (wet snow, then), but their size and smaller.

The most astonishing and incomprehensible avalanche – the so-called snow-covered board. They appear in cases where the soft snow on a slope covered with thick dense crust – frozen crust. It turns out that the slope, indeed, hanging from a snow board. Sometimes quite loud scream, fell to this board and rushed down the slope, sliding on the soft snow, which lies under the frozen crust. The very same board – a dense and heavy, so that it can severely cripple the wreckage of man.
Avalanches have claimed many lives. Therefore, in mountainous countries set up special service Avalanche, who study the avalanche forecast their gathering, shot at the slopes of the guns, bringing down the accumulated snow in the most opportune moment.

Another destroyer is rural mountains. Sel – is a mud flow. There is he. Suppose a landslide or mudslide blocked a mountain river. The result was a dam, above which the water begins to accumulate. When water typed enough, it breaks through the dam or dilutes it. Down in the valley, falls flow of water mixed with mud, stones and clay. They sat down to destroy the villages in the mountains that can only be built in river valleys, kill people and animals.

Fortunately, agriculture is different from an avalanche in that it is easy to predict when to follow closely the upper reaches of mountain rivers. In the valleys, where they boarded not uncommon
people build a dam or dams special to protect homes. Thus, the world-famous skating rink Medeo near Alma-Ata on the river Slow Almaatinka River rises a giant dam of about 100 m. In normal times, the river seems to be very small compared to this colossal construction. But the dam protects the capital of Kazakhstan from the floods that were previously delivered to local people a lot of trouble.

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