The Climate Of India is as varied as its cultures from the alpine north to hot and humid south west coast.
For the sake of climate discussion, India can be divided into two distinct regions viz., North India and South India.
Climate of North India
North India covers the Area from the state of Jammu and Kashmir to the Vindya Mountain range. The climate is cool and dry in winter with some rain during the cold season. The mountainous area receives snowfall also. Generally, the temperature is most pleasant on the plains of North India where average temperatures are in the range of 50 to 60 F ( 10-15 C ). In the mountains however temperatures below 32 F are frequent with heavy snow on some occasions.
The early summer is very hot on the plains where the temperatures can cross the 100 F mark by Mid-April and by May it reaches 110 F ( 43 C ). The hill stations enjoy the most pleasant climate at this time where the temperatures are in the range of 70 -80 F at mid-day.
From end of June to about the middle of September this area receives moderate monsoon rains. The rain is heaviest in the North-East and gradually decreases westwards. In general this season is the most unhealthy of all with extreme humidity and high temperatures.
Climate of South India
South India comprises the Area from the Vindya Mountain range up to the southern most tip of India. Whole of peninsular India falls under this region. The climate of South India principally differs from the climate of the North on the following points.
1. The weather remains hot throughout the year and generally the coolest month is over 7O F ( 21 C ). At Mumbai for instance, the coolest month has a mean of 76 F ( 25 C ).
2. The humidity is high throughout the year especially in the coastal areas which makes the weather very trying.
3. South India generally receives much more rain than North India. Especially, South western India is an area of very heavy rainfall. No where on the west coast, the total annual rainfall is les than 70 in (1800 mm ) and at Panaji in Goa it is more than 118 in ( 3000 mm ). The rainy season is also much longer than that of North India . It starts in early June and continues up to end of October.
This is, in a nutshell a brief description of climate of India.