A measure proportional to the average translational kinetic energy associated with the disordered microscopic motion of atoms and molecules. The flow of heat is from a high temperature region toward a lower temperature region.
Temperature depends on a number of factors. Countries lying near the equator are hot as there are no clouds to bar the heat from escaping into space. Temperature also depends on how shiny the surface is.
The shiny surfaces such as snow and ice reflect solar radiation back into space and so they have low temperatures, while the dull surface such as soil and forests absorb the radiation keeping the temperature high.
The Sun’s rays meet the poles at an angle because the earth curves away.
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