Most civilizations in the world has ever lost due to a volcanic eruption. One the greatest eruption in modern history is the explosion of Mount Tambora in April 1815. Geologists De Boer and Sanders write that it sent a plume of volcanic ash high into the planet’s atmosphere, bringing on a “nuclear winter” that devastated crops in the northern hemisphere. Another interesting story related is in 1815, Napoleon’s armies fell to defeat at Waterloo, a clash that would change the course of world events.
Mount Tambora – Sumbawa, Indonesia
Location of Mount Tambora ( Image via Wikipedia)
Year Without a Summer , that’s what happens when on April 10, 1815, Mount Tambora in West Nusa Tenggara province Indonesia, launched the pyroclastic material. Pyroclastic rocks 2-15 cm in diameter ejected as far as 40 kilometers. The eruption lasted eight days, 5 April-12 April, with a peak on April 10, spewing out 150 billion cubic meters pyroclastic material.
What remains after that is 92,000 people were found dead and about 80,000 people still living, the Kingdom of Pekat and the Kingdom of Tambora on Sumbawa Island disappeared were buried, and the earth’s temperature fell by more than two degrees Celsius (about 5 degrees Fahrenheit). Snow fell in June in Quebec City, Canada, crops in many parts of the world crop failure. Historian John Post called it, “The last great crisis in the Western world.”
That Tambora eruption is the greatest in modern history. Its strength reached about Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7-maximum VEI of 8. This index is analogous to the magnitude of the earthquake that expressed by the Richter scale. 8 VEI scale explosion occurred at Toba Super volcano at 73,000 years ago which led to the formation of Lake Toba-diameter of 3,000 km. For more detail about Tambora, you can read article Mount Tambora – The Killer Volcano That Changed History or buy a book Tambora – A Killer Volcano from Indonesia on Amazon.
Mount Krakatoa – Sunda Strait, Indonesia
Mount Krakatoa (Image via Wikipedia)
Krakatau is a volcanic island in Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. On August 27, 1883, Monday, Mount Krakatoa erupted with force VEI 6, which triggered a tsunami as high as about 50 meters and killed approximately 36 000 on neighbouring islands. A ship is 80 kilometers was hit by a gust of wind hurled the eruption. The explosions could be heard as far away as Sri Lanka and the Philippines and ash fell over and area of 800 000 sq km.
Location of Mount Krakatoa ( Image via Wikipedia)
This second largest volcano explosion in the modern hostory caused dust floating around the world until New York and Norway. The world was darkened over two week. For years the effect is still felt, causing sunlight to be different that inspired poets West. One of them is a Norwegian poet’s work, The Scream, which inspired the effect of Krakatau. Krakatoa volcanic dust dispersion pattern has helped the understanding of global wind currents. The peak of Mount Krakatoa disappeared and “born” Mount Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatoa). For more detail about what happen with Mount Krakatoa in 1883 you can buy a book Krakatoa : The Day The World Exploded : August 27, 1883 by Simon Winchester. (DodDid)
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