How the Himalayas were formed.
The birth of Himalayas dates back to millions of years ago, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era. There were a series of stages which led to the formation of the Himalayas. The formation of the Himalayas is the result of a collision of India with Asia along the convergent plate boundary. There were powerful earth movements between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate that resulted in the creation of the Himalayan range. The earth’s movements raised the deposits, which were laid down in the shallow Tethys Sea, which is on the present location of the mountains. Today, there is constant change and development in the mountains due to earthquakes.
The formation of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Arakan Yoma highlands in Myanmar is the result of this collision. The collision of India with Asia was due to the movement of continental drift. There are various plates that collide, diverge, and slide from each other at about 2 cm/year. This action beneath the earth’s surface leads to the rising of the Himalayas by about 5 mm per year. The convection currents beneath the earth’s surface results in this action of collision. It is the process of convection that drives hot current upwards due to less density and cold current downwards due to more density. This movement of Indian plate into the Asian plate makes this region very active and prone to earthquakes. In the future also the plate will move like this causing changes in the structure of the Himalayas. The height and width of the mountain will change according to the action beneath the earth’s surface. In the north, the mountains will be taller and smaller in the south while the width remains the same.