A stack or sea stack is a rock formation made up of a steep or upright column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast. They are formed when part of a headland is eroded by water crashing against the rock or as a result of wind erosion. These impressive formations are intricately created by nature only through time, tide and wind. Here are 10 of the world’s most famous sea stack formations.
Hopewell Rocks (Canada)
New Brunswick’s icon are dark sedimentary conglomerate and sandstone rock formations called Hopewell Rocks. These natural wonders are created by the tides of the Bay of Fundy, the highest tides in the world reaching up to 30 m (98 ft)which happens twice a day. At low tide, visitors can explore the sandstone pillars and when it’s high tide they can choose to paddle a kayak around the rock formations which bears interesting names such as “ET”, “Mother-in-Law” and “Lover’s Arch.”
Haystock Rock (USA)
Rising at 72 m (235 ft) off the coast of Oregon, USA, Haystock Rock is the third tallest volcanic stack in the world. The basalt sea stack was formed by lava flows coming from the Grand Ronde Mountains millions of years ago. The rock used to be a part of the coastline but years of erosion have since separated it from the headland. It is a haven for many sea birds, including terns and puffins. The famous monolith can be seen in the movies: The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop and the 1979 Steven Spielberg movie, 1941.
The Twelve Apostles (Australia)
The Twelve Apostles is a collection of giant sea stacks off the shore of Port Campbell National Park in Victoria, Australia. They were formed by the constant wind and tide erosion of the limestone cliffs that started millions of years ago. The stacks were first formed into caves which later became arches that eventually collapsed to form what was initially called the “Sow and Piglets.” The name was changed in the 1950s to the more tourist-luring name “The Twelve Apostles” even though only nine were left.
Old Man of Hoy (Scotland)