With the right weather conditions and temperature, ice and snow can come in different forms.
When the temperature of the soil is above 0°C and the surface temperature of the air is below 0°C, the subterraneam moisture is brought to the surface via capillary action and a phenomenon called needle ice is formed. Also called “frost column,” needle ice consists of groups of narrow ice slivers that are typically a few centimeters long.
Frost flower, also known as “ice flower” or “ice ribbon,” is a phenomenon in which thin layers of ice are squeezed like toothpaste from plants in autumn or early winter. The thin layers of ice are shaped into exquisite forms that curl into petals looking like ribbons or flowers. Usually observed during early morning or in shaded areas, a frost flower is formed when the sap in the stem of plants have frozen, causing the stem tissue to burst, and allowing the water to extrude outward and freezes upon contact with cold air. Frost flower can only “bloom” when the ground is not frozen.
Anchor ice is submerged ice attached or anchored to the bottom, often adhering to stones and other substances forming the bed of streams or rivers. It is most commonly found in fast-flowing rivers during periods of extreme cold, in the shallow sub or intertidal during or after storms when the air temperature is below the freezing point of the water, and in the subtidal in the Antarctic along ice shelves or near floating glacier tongues.