Information about abnormalities of the placenta.
The placenta is the organ that carries out excretion, respiration, and nutrition for the embryo, and it is fully formed during the fourth month. Top 10 abnormalities of the placenta are placenta membranace, placenta bipartita or tripartita, placenta duplex, placenta succenturiata, placenta fenestrata, placenta circumvallata, battledore placenta, placenta velamentosa, placenta praevia, placental infarction.
Human placenta via Wikipedia
Placenta duplex, triplex or multiplex. The placenta has two or more separate lobes and the umbilical cord branches sending vessels to each lobe. Placenta succenturiata. The placenta has one or two small accessory lobes completely separate from the main placenta, and blood vessels pass from the small lobe to the main lobe along the membranes.
Placenta membranace. This type may require manual removal during labor, this thin placenta lines the greater part of the uterine cavity, the chorion laeve and the chorion frondosum both take part in the formation of the placenta. Placenta bipartita or tripartita. The placenta has two or three incomplete lobes and the umbilical vessels pass of one lobe to the other before joining the umbilical cord.
Human fetus via Wikipedia
Placenta fenestrata. The placenta has failed to develop over a small area and has the appearance of a window, the defect is filled with fetal membranes. Placenta circumvallata. The placenta has a central depression on its fetal surface to the margins of which the fetal membranes are attached.
Battledore placenta. The umbilical cord is attached to the margin of the placenta. Placenta velamentosa. The umbilical cord is attached to the membranes some distance from the margin of the placenta and the umbilical vessels pass along the membrane to reach the margin.
Placenta praevia. Severe painless hemorrhage occurring from the twenty – eight week onward is the clinical sign of placenta praevia, and is caused by expansion of the lower half of the uterine wall at this time, and by its tearing away from the placenta.
Circulation of a fetus via Wikipedia
Placental infarction. In most cases the cause is unknown, but in some it may be caused by trauma applied to the mother’s abdomen producing shearing forces on the placental uterine junction, which locally interferes with the maternal circulation. In conclusion the abnormalities of the placenta can lead to death of the fetus.