Here are some crucial things about biology you need to know in order to get good grades.
Different types of microscopes are light microscopes, TEMs and SEMs.
TEM- shows the detail inside a cell.
SEM-shows detail of the surface of a cell.
Light- passes light through specimen.
Cells need to be small in order to move enough nutrients through themselves.
Prokaryotes- smaller and simpler, no inner membranes and has a nucleoid region where nucleus should be. Have ribosomes.
Eukaryotes-are larger than prokaryotes and are more complex. These also have a ribosomes, as well as inner membranes.
The parts of a eukaryotic cell are:
- Nucleus- Control center of the cell, contains the DNA and nucleolus
- Smooth ER- Synthesizes lipids and stores calcium ions
- Rough ER- creates more membrane and modifies proteins that are to be sent to other organelles
- Centriole- Found in centrosomes, have a 9+0 pattern
- Lysosome- Breaks down food and defective organelles. Also can kill an entire cell.
- Flagellum- Used for movement. Moves by undulating back and forth.
- Peroxisome- Destroys peroxide, which is poisonous and is a by product of many cellular processes
- Microtubule- Provides rigidity and shape to parts of a cell where it may disassemble
- Intermediate filament- Reinforces cell shape and holds together certain organelles
- Microfilament- has Actin, holds a cell’s shape and causes the contraction of cells
- Mitochondria- Powerhouse of the cell, it takes sugars and turns them into ATP
- Plasma membrane- The cell membrane and bilipid layer, it decides what substances get in and out of a cell
- Golgi Bodies- Receives, modifies, packages, and transports the proteins sent to it from the rough ER. Also creates lysosomes.
- Ribosomes- Receives information from RNA and produces proteins which are sent through the rough ER
And in a plant cell:
- Cell wall- Keeps the plants shape
- Central vacuole
- Chloroplasts- Produces food for the plant through the use of the light reaction and the Calvin Cycle
Cilia are multiple appendages on a cell, while flagellum usually have only one or two appendages.
The term 9+2 is shown as:
Plasmodesmata- Holes in between plant cells that allow the transfer of substances.
Gap junctions- Same function as the plasmodesmata.
Energy is the capacity to perform work, kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and potential energy is stored energy that is possible because of location and structure.
Chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules, and is the most important for living organisms.
The laws of thermodynamics:
First: AKA the law of energy conservation, energy can be transferred and transformed, but never created or destroyed.