Things You Need to Know About Biology

Here are some crucial things about biology you need to know in order to get good grades.

Different types of microscopes are light microscopes, TEMs and SEMs.

TEM- shows the detail inside a cell.

SEM-shows detail of the surface of a cell.

Light- passes light through specimen.

Cells need to be small in order to move enough nutrients through themselves.

Prokaryotes- smaller and simpler, no inner membranes and has a nucleoid region where nucleus should be. Have ribosomes.

Eukaryotes-are larger than prokaryotes and are more complex. These also have a ribosomes, as well as inner membranes.

The parts of a eukaryotic cell are:

  1. Nucleus- Control center of the cell, contains the DNA and nucleolus
  2. Smooth ER- Synthesizes lipids and stores calcium ions
  3. Rough ER- creates more membrane and modifies proteins that are to be sent to other organelles
  4. Centriole- Found in centrosomes, have a 9+0 pattern
  5. Lysosome- Breaks down food and defective organelles. Also can kill an entire cell.
  6. Flagellum- Used for movement. Moves by undulating back and forth.
  7. Peroxisome- Destroys peroxide, which is poisonous and is a by product of many cellular processes
  8. Microtubule- Provides rigidity and shape to parts of a cell where it may disassemble
  9. Intermediate filament- Reinforces cell shape and holds together certain organelles
  10. Microfilament- has Actin, holds a cell’s shape and causes the contraction of cells
  11. Mitochondria- Powerhouse of the cell, it takes sugars and turns them into ATP
  12. Plasma membrane- The cell membrane and bilipid layer, it decides what substances get in and out of a cell
  13. Golgi Bodies- Receives, modifies, packages, and transports the proteins sent to it from the rough ER. Also creates lysosomes.
  14. Ribosomes- Receives information from RNA and produces proteins which are sent through the rough ER

And in a plant cell:

  1. Cell wall- Keeps the plants shape
  2. Central vacuole
  3. Chloroplasts- Produces food for the plant through the use of the light reaction and the Calvin Cycle

Cilia are multiple appendages on a cell, while flagellum usually have only one or two appendages.

The term 9+2 is shown as:

Plasmodesmata- Holes in between plant cells that allow the transfer of substances.

Tight junctions-

Anchoring junctions-

Gap junctions- Same function as the plasmodesmata.

Energy is the capacity to perform work, kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and potential energy is stored energy that is possible because of location and structure.

Chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules, and is the most important for living organisms.

The laws of thermodynamics:

First: AKA the law of energy conservation, energy can be transferred and transformed, but never created or destroyed.

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10 Responses to “Things You Need to Know About Biology”
  1. wow Says...

    On October 22, 2008 at 5:42 pm

    i liked it


  2. cool Says...

    On October 25, 2008 at 2:40 pm

    this totally helped me pass a test thnx


  3. future SAT tester Says...

    On November 6, 2009 at 9:30 pm

    Thank you, I love you.


  4. 9th grade biology test taker Says...

    On June 17, 2010 at 12:22 am

    OMG THX A LOT!!!!!!! i hope i pass my final!!!


  5. about to take final Says...

    On May 22, 2011 at 4:21 pm

    hope this helps on my biology final thnx!


  6. fatkid Says...

    On January 24, 2012 at 2:09 pm

    dis was useful


  7. Person frantically trying to find biology info for ENOE at last minute Says...

    On June 5, 2012 at 11:22 pm

    Perfect and more than what I needed. Thanks a million!!!!!!


  8. yo mama Says...

    On November 26, 2012 at 8:33 pm

    yes perfect


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