The Human skeleton provides support, protection, surfaces for muscles attachments, enables movement, stores minerals (calcium and phosphate) and is a site for the production of red blood cells.
c) The other cervical vertebra (3rd to the 7th) supports the skull and the neck. All the cervical vertebrae coordinate to allow the movement of the head and neck, including nodding and rotating movements. The cervical vertebra has Vertebrarterial canal, flat centrum, small neural spine and transverse processes.
d) The thoracic vertebra has a long neural spine that extends backwards. The centrum is short but thicker and bigger than that of the cervical vertebra. There are facets at the centrum and the short transverse processes to articulate with the ribs.
e) Lumbar vertebra is the biggest vertebra with big, short and flat neural spine which extends posterior. The transverse processes are broad but flat. Both these serve as surfaces for muscle attachments. The centrum is big and thick.
f) Sacrum 5 sacral vertebrae are fused to form the triangular shaped sacrum. All the neural spines are short and joined together. On each side of the sacrum are present facets to allow the joint between the sacrum and the ilium. There are no neural canals.
g) Coccyx (The tail vertebrae) 4 vertebrae are fused together to form the coccyx. It is triangular in shape. Coccyx is small and do not have any specific function.
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The appendicular skeleton consists of the scapula, clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia and fibula.
a) i. The pectoral girdle as shown in the diagram above consists of the triangular shaped flat scapular and the cylindrical clavicle (collar bone). The scapula also known as the shoulder blade, has at its one end a depression known as the glenoid socket to form a ball and socket joint with the humerus.