Some basic knowledge for you about ecosystems.
Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and organisms as well as organisms and the physical/abiotic (nonliving) factors of the biosphere. A biosphere is something that supports life. Earth is one along with a glass cube with water and microorganisms in it (it doesn’t have to be spherical). There are many different abiotic and biotic factors of a biosphere.
Abiotic or nonlivings factors are factors that aren’t living that affect living organisms in a biosphere. These include light, temperature, water, and soil. Water makes up most of the bodies of most organisms. How much water an ecosystem gets will affect if greatly. Light and temperature are the availability of sunlight. This determines how well photosynthesis can occur. The soil is also very important. It is made up of 3 things; they are clay, sand, and humus. Humus is the decomposed bodies of dead organisms. The more humus the soil has, the more fertile it will be.
Biotic factors would include things like predation, and other relations. A relation is when multiple organisms interact with each other. Some benefit partners, don’t affect partners, or hurt partners. Mutualism is when both partners benefit from the relation like a flower and a bee. When one partner benefits and the other partner isn’t affected it is called commensalisms, an example is like fish gaining protection from swimming by a shark. Parasitism is when one partner benefits while doing definite harm to the other partner, such as a bloodsucking leech and a human.
There are also factors that affect how many organisms of one population can live in an area. These are called limiting factors. More than the carrying capacity, or maximum amount of individuals in a certain population there can be over a long period of time, can be in a population but they will not be able to support this number for a long period of time. This causes some of them to die until they are around the carrying capacity. Population density is how many organisms of a population live in a certain size of an environment.