DNA Mutations

Eight types of Spontaneous DNA mutations.

The DNA molecule in every cells of our bodies is a template of life instructions. The DNA is made out of four bases that paired complementary and it form a helical structure. This helical structure of DNA molecule is the sources of many cancers in our life time. When the DNA molecule undergo damages, it is called mutations. DNA mutations may be caused by environmental factors, or may be passed down from parent to off springs. Unlike the DNA mutations that passed down from parent to off springs, DNA mutations that are caused by environmental factors are called spontaneous DNA mutations. There are eights types of spontaneous DNA mutations and all types have severe consequences for our bodies. 

  1. Tautomeric shifts: Changing of base structure spontaneously.
  2. Depurination: Breaking of linkage between purines and deoxyribose spontaneously.
  3. Toxic metabolic products: chemical toxins reactive agents that alter the structure of DNA.
  4. Aberrant segregation: segregation of chromosomal causing aneuploidy or polyploidy.
  5. Aberrant recombination: abnormal crossing over of DNA causing deletions, duplications.
  6. Errors in DNA replication: Mistake by DNA polymerase causing point mutation. 
  7. Transposable elements: insertion of elements into gene sequences.
  8. Deamination: Cytosine deaminate to create uracil spontaneously. 

A person is at the risk of these eight types of spontaneous DNA mutations. Since spontaneous DNA mutations are caused by environmental factors, older people have higher chances of having their DNA mutated spontaneously because they are more exposed to these environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to monitor risk for DNA mutation that may cause cancer and utilize appropriate remediation to lower the risk of the environmental factors. 

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