The various parts of a plant cell.
The function of the cell membrane is to allow waste material to exit the cell. The cell membrane forms a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside, so that the chemical environments on both sides can be different. It regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
The function of the cell wall is to provide structural support and to control the amount of water entering the cell. The cell wall is a wall that allows the circulation and distribution of water, minerals, and other small nutrient molecules into and out of the cell. It gives rigid support from which stable structures like leaves and stems can be produced. It can also sense the presence of pathogenic microbes and control the development of tissues within the cell because of its storage site of regulatory molecules
The Golgi body stores, packages, and distributes the lipids and proteins made in the endoplasmic reticulum. It puts proteins into packages, called vesicles.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize and exports proteins and glycoproteins.
The purpose of lysosomes are to digest things. They could be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. Lysosomes are The cell’s garbage disposal system. They clean up while patrolling the cell. This organelle breaks down large molecules into many smaller molecules by using their special proteins. The smaller molecules can be used as building blocks for other large ones. Lysosomes also kill and digest invading organisms.
The function of the cytoplasm is to distribute oxygen and food (nutrients) to other parts of the cell and it supports all parts inside the cell. It has three main functions: storage, energy, and manufacturing. The cytoplasm contains nutrients that have been dissolved which help for the dissolving of waste products.
The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made. The nucleolus disappears during cell reproduction. This is because ribosomes are not needed when cells reproduce.
The function of the vacuole is to store water, nutrients, and other substances that cannot be used right away. They tend to be larger in plant cells because plants are watered. When they are well watered, water collects in cell vacuoles producing rigidity in plants. Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays a significant structural role for the plant.
Ribosomes are the protein builders or protein synthesizers of the cell.
Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. They contain chlorophyll, the green pigment that is needed for photosynthesis. Through the process of photosynthesis, green plants use the energy from the sun to convert it into sugar. The main purpose of this organelle is to produce sugars and starches.
The nucleus regulates all cell activity. It contains chromosomes, structures made up of genetic information, that direct a cell’s growth and reproduction.
The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and all of its contents. It is similar to the cell membrane around the whole cell. There are pores and spaces for RNA and proteins to pass through while the nuclear envelope keeps all of the chromatin and the nucleolus inside.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to package proteins for transport, synthesize membrane phosolipids, and releases calcium. Some other functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include transformation of bile pigments, glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), and detoxification of many drugs and chemical agents.
The function of the mitochondria is to provide the cell with energy. Through the process of respiration, the mitochondria uses oxygen to change sugar into energy. It gives out energy by combining sugar molecules with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water.
The amylosplast is an organelle in some plant cells that store starch.
The druse crystal, often found in plant vacuoles, is a granular type of crystal usually composed of calcium oxalate. The druse crystal is said to deter herbivory.
The centrosome is an area in the cell where microtubules are produced. Microtubules carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transportation to structural support. During cell division, the centrosome divides, and both parts move to opposite sides of the cell.
The raphide crystal, usually composed of calcium oxalate, is a needle kind of crystal often found in plant vacuoles. It is thought to slow down herbivory.
19. Golgi Vesicles:
The Golgi vesicles carry the proteins and lipids to take them to other parts of the cell or to the outside of the cell.