Animals are directly or indirectly dependent on plants. Thus nature has provided them with certain defence mechanisms to ward off animals.
Some plants have thorns which can pierce the animal’s body. Examples of these are the lemon, pomegranate and wood apple.
Spines are another defence device which puts off animals. We see them in the pineapple, date palm, dagger plant and cacti plants.
Prickles are hard pointed like thorns but are curved. Prickles are found in rose, cane, coral tree and silk cotton tree.
Some plants have bristles which are short, stiff and needle like hairs, usually growing in clusters. They are found in the prickly pear and certain cacti.
Some plants have a dense coating of hair which is repulsive to animals as they stick to their throat and cause a choking sensation.
Many plants bear glandular hairs which secrete a sticky substance. Grazing animals keep off from them as it is difficult to brush it off from their mouth. Tobacco is one such plant.
There are plants which have latex, a milky juice which causes irritation, inflammation and even blisters. Plant like madar, oleander, periwinkle and banyan contain latex.
Other defence mechanisms are repulsive taste and smell or even poisonous fruits.
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