For thousands of years since they became aware of its existence in space, people were fascinated by the mysteries of Mars, mysteries, as we near the modern era, the imminent converged last curiosity: there is life on Mars? Although compelling evidence of the fact that there would be life ever developed on Mars have not yet been obtained, the possibility that the fourth planet from the Sun once however have been able to create and maintain living organisms, began shape due to numerous exploratory missions to Mars arid soil.
Currently orbit Mars revolves five automatic observation stations, atmosphere Red Planet is full of a lot of satellites and instruments to measure and Martian surface is crossed by two robots, which continuously transmit information about the planet, collect samples and photographs . In the race to conquer the Red Planet, NASA and ESA fierce dispute the supremacy. But competition between American and European space agency can only enjoy the scientific community because it is bombarded daily with data from increasingly precious.
Ground exploration of Mars mission began with the Mars Rover to NASA , which sent two robots twin planet, mobile laboratories (rovers) Spirit and Opportunity , in order to analyze soil composition and the different conditions present on Mars. Spirit lifted off from Earth on board a rocket Delta II on June 10, 2003, and amortized morning of January 4, 2004. Other Rover - Opportunity - started on July 7, 2003 and reached Mars on Jan. 24, 2004. Currently, Spirit is exploring Gusev Crater , where he reported an abundance of rock and soil formations that reveal the existence of water event (at least, the planet’s past), and Opportunity is the other side of the planet, plain Meridiani Planum - place also supports the hypothesis that the surface of Mars has no water.
A recent project belonging to NASA, the ship Phoenix Lander , part of Project Phoenix Mars Lander was successfully launched on August 4, 2007 and amartizat day of May 25, 2008. The program was supposed to last 90 Martian days (about 92 Earth days), but the robot has exceeded expectations for five months running and managed to transmit data until the day of November 2, 2008. The project was officially completed on November 10, 2008, as decreasing the duration of sun exposure and increased frequency of dust storms in the place where the probe is no longer allowing it to recharge solar batteries. However, during operation, Phoenix led to the discovery of some of the most important information ever obtained about Mars and about the possible existence of life on this planet.